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English Loanwords in Select Cebuano-Visayan News Dailies: Syntax and Language Acculturation Analysis

 



English Loanwords in Select Cebuano-Visayan News Dailies:

Syntax and Language Acculturation Analysis

 

Desiree Dawn P. Justol

Assistant Professor

Department of English

Tagoloan Community College

Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental, Philippines

 

Abstract:

 

Language Acculturation is a continuing development in which a word infuses in a speech community and grow into part of the people's linguistic range. The more speakers become familiar with the a newly loanword, its characteristics gradually accommodate to its own linguistic system. This paper aimed to show relevance of linguistic acculturation of English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan. The analysis of the paper involved news article description as it shows the direct evidence of daily literary record of language in terms of syntax, identification of loanwords and its categories and its linguistic acculturation. The results proved that English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan are acculturated through orthographic nativization and even really the exact English terms which is believed with no precise and direct translation in Cebuano-Visayan form. Thus, the study recommended that there is a need to conduct more parallel comprehensive research about the English loanwords as part of Structural borrowings in Cebuano-Visayan language.

 

Key words:

 

English Loanwords, Language Acculturation, Local News Article, Cebuano-Visayan Words

 

Introduction:

 

            Loanwords are borrowed words adopted by the speakers of one language from the source language. It refers to the process of speakers applying words within a speech community from the one these words originated.

 

            The assimilation of English loanwords to Cebuano-Visayan language shows language acculturation. This occurrence is a result when speech communities having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns of either or both groups (Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, 1936). Acculturation most commonly occurs with a member of a minority culture being exposed to a majority culture, such as the situation with an immigrant moving into a new country. Undeniably, Americans took over the Philippines for 48 years, starting from December 10, 1898, the signing of the Treaty of Paris, to July 4, 1946. This includes the Commonwealth period. The years of colonization are apparent to the used language in the country particularly in the places of Cebuano-Visayan speakers.

 

            Thus, this paper assumes that the years of linguistic contact between English Language and Cebuano-Visayan has continued to be very obvious up until today which is evident to the documented English loanwords as product of language acculturation.

 

            The assumption above is anchored with the theory of phylogenetic change focusing on linguistic borrowing by Hockett (1960). He explained that any language changes as time goes by a mechanism of phylogenetic change in linguistic borrowing. When two languages come into direct contact, one or both may be affected. He furthered opined that certain lexical items in a foreign language are nativized by the borrower language.

 

            Several studies show interest in loanword adaptations that is in the modification of words when they are borrowed and used into a foreign language. Hyman (1970) stated that the generative grammar is constituted by the surface form of the source language, and that the adaptations are computed by the phonological grammar of the borrowing language. This adverse feature is vague from constraint-based phonology, in which the transformations in loanwords are driven by constraints that are already part of the grammar. This has given a particular relevance to the study of loanword adaptations. (see, among others, Yip 1993; Paradis & LaCharité 1997; Ulrich 1997; Broselow 2000, in press; Rose 1999; Golston & Yang 2001; Jacobs & Gussenhoven 2000; Kenstowicz 2001).

 

            Morelos (1998) explained that since American English language has become one of the of the official languages in the Philippines, eclipsing the Spanish language for a while and then replacing it as the nation’s new lingua franca in government and politics, commerce and industry, education and entertainment and other aspects of progress and development of the nation. Thus, the phenomenon of bilingualism which interchangeably uses the Cebuano and the English languages throughout a series of both formal and informal speech events have paved the way for cultural and linguistic borrowings.

 

            The tendency of Filipino, as the national language of the Philippines nowadays to borrow heavily from English is not a new phenomenon in Philippine languages. In the year 1972, John Wolff in his dictionary of Cebuano-Visayan language showed that several number of English words were respelled to conform with Cebuano orthography such a three-vowel system --a. i, u (Rubrico, 2015).

            Indeed, many studies of language borrowings have been recorded in many countries as it added more to their vocabulary (Mojela, 2010) and noted some changes are orthographic whether consonants or vowels (Hussain, Mahmood, 2012; Pesirla, 2014).

 

Vital reasons are involved in this study. Firstly, is to give bearing to the Philippine culture and expand awareness of the English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan language. Thus, this study could be useful to the students, teachers, and future researchers as well.

 

To the students, this study will be benefiting them in a sense that they would be able to deepen the indebtedness of linguistic borrowing of English words.

 

To the teachers, the result of the study may tender insights for them to understand how language can be acculturated through period of time and may also lead to possible classroom activities that may enhance the students’ exploration to language and literature culture in terms of world views, perspectives and intuitions.

 

To the future researcher, this study could possibly encourage future researchers to undergo similar study but in a wider and different role.

Hence, this paper aims to show relevance of linguistic acculturation of English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan in terms of:

 

1.      Syntax of Local News Article.

2.      English Loanwords found in the News Article.

3.      Classification of English Loanwords

4.      Linguistic Acculturation of English Loanwords to Cebuano-Visayan documentation.

 

Methods:

 

            Qualitative research design was employed in this study which implies an emphasis on the qualities of local news articles as basis to prove the statements made.

 

            To analyze the language acculturation phenomenon of English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan language, a local news articles with the same topic entitled “Babayeng Hubo Gusto Magpaligis” and the other one is “Bababeng Hubo, Nagbuy-od Sa Dalan” both released on May 20, 2017 of two print media publications which are Sunstar Super Balita Cagayan de Oro City and Birada Sentro Balita Northern Mindanao, are used as a model text for lexical analysis.

 

            The analysis of the paper involved news article description as it shows the direct evidence of daily literary record of language in terms of syntax, identification of loanwords and its categories and its linguistic acculturation.

 

            Limitation of this study is implied on the English loanwords used in Cebuano-Visayan language and excluding the rules and patterns of structural borrowing of words. Thus, only the words in the local news articles serve as the resource and basis of the study.

 

Findings, Results and Discussions

           

This section presents the language acculturation of English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan in terms of:

 

Table 1. Syntax of Local News Article.

 

Categories Of Words

 

Number of Words found

 

Total number of words

 

 

Percentage

“Babayeng Hubo Gusto Magpaligis” Sunstar Super Balita Cagayan de Oro City

“Bababeng Hubo, Nagbuy-od Sa Dalan”

Birada Sentro Balita Northern Mindanao

Noun

48

48

96

28%

Pronoun

14

15

29

8.45%

Adjective

18

14

32

9.32%

Verb

39

31

70

20.41%

Adverb

11

8

19

5.54%

Conjunction

22

10

32

9.33%

Preposition

21

21

42

12.24%

Interjection

0

0

0

0%

Article

11

12

23

6.71%

 

184

159

343

100%

 

            Table 1 presents that the local news article used in this study has a total of 343 words. The news in “Babayeng Hubo Gusto Magpaligis” of Sunstar Super Balita Cagayan de Oro City has a total of 3 paragraphs containing 6 sentences with 184 words in all. The highest category of words used is noun with 48 words. On the other hand, The “Bababeng Hubo, Nagbuy-od Sa Dalan” of Birada Sentro Balita Northern Mindanao has a total of 5 paragraphs which contains 7 sentences with 159 words in all. The highest category of words used in the said news article is still noun with 48 words found. Hence, there is no interjection found in both news articles. Thus, noun has the highest number of words in both news article with a total of 96 words and has a corresponding of 28%.

 

Table 2. English Loanwords found in the News Article.

 

No.

Cebuano-Visayan Forms

News Article

English Word

Native Affixes

1

Residente

1

Resident

 

2

Kolor

1

Color

 

3

Police Chief Inspector

3

Police Chief Inspector

 

4

Hall

1

Hall

 

5

Pamilya

1

Family

 

6

Trak

1

Truck

 

7

Bypass

2

Bypass

 

8

Road

2

Road

 

9

Motoresta

2

Motorist

 

10

Police Station

3

Police Station

 

11

T-shirt

2

T-shirt

 

12

Underwear

2

Underwear

 

13

Cellophane

2

Cellophane

 

14

City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD)

2

City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD)

 

15

Disposiyon

2

Disposition

 

16

Parte

2

Part

 

17

Drive

1

Drive

 

18

Bisitahon

1

Visit

-hon

19

Nagresponde/Miresponde

3

Response

Nag-/Mi-

20

Report

1

Report

 

21

High

1

High

 

22

Upper

3

Upper

 

 

*Indicator for column News Article:

 

1-      “Babayeng Hubo Gusto Magpaligis” of Sunstar Super Balita Cagayan de Oro City

2-      “Bababeng Hubo, Nagbuy-od Sa Dalan” of Birada Sentro Balita Northern Mindanao

3-      Found in both news article

 

            Table 2 presents that there are 24 Cebuano-Visayan forms which are loaned words from English language. Among all the loanwords, 9 of which are seen in the first news article “Babayeng Hubo Gusto Magpaligis” of Sunstar Super Balita Cagayan de Oro City; 9 comes from the second news article “Bababeng Hubo, Nagbuy-od Sa Dalan” of Birada Sentro Balita Northern Mindanao and 4 words are present in both news article. Thus, only 2 words which are Bsitahon, Nagresponde and Miresponde used native affixes, -hon, Nag- and Mi-.

 

Table 3. Classification of English Loanwords

 

No.

Cebuano-Visayan Forms

Categories of Words

English Word

1

Residente

Noun

Resident

2

Kolor

Noun

Color

3

Police Chief Inspector

Noun

Police Chief Inspector

4

Hall

Noun

Hall

5

Pamilya

Noun

Family

6

Trak

Noun

Truck

7

Bypass

Noun

Bypass

8

Road

Noun

Road

9

Motoresta

Noun

Motorist

10

Police Station

Noun

Police Station

11

T-shirt

Noun

T-shirt

12

Underwear

Noun

Underwear

13

Cellophane

Noun

Cellophane

14

City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD)

Noun

City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD)

15

Disposiyon

Noun

Disposition

16

Parte

Noun

Part

17

Drive

Verb

Drive

18

Bisitahon

Verb

Visit

19

Nagresponde/Miresponde

Verb

Response

20

Report

Verb

Report

21

High

Adjective

High

22

Upper

Adjective

Upper

 

            Table 3 presents that among 22 English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan language, there were 16 words used as nouns, 4 words used as verbs and only 2 words used as adjective. The higher number of borrowed nouns found in an article supported by Marian and Kaushanskaya (2007) revealed that more cross-linguistic borrowings occurs.

 

Table 4. Linguistic Acculturation of English Loanwords to Cebuano-Visayan documentation.

 

No.

English Word

Cebuano-Visayan Forms

Orthographic Nativization

1

Resident

Residente

added e at the last word

2

Color

Kolor

C to K

3

Police Chief Inspector

Police Chief Inspector

Still

4

Hall

Hall

Still

5

Family

Pamilya

F to P, added a at the last word

6

Truck

Trak

U to A, omit letter c

7

Bypass

Bypass

Still

8

Road

Road

Still

9

Motorist

Motoresta

i to e, added a at the last word

10

Police Station

Police Station

Still

11

T-shirt

T-shirt

Still

12

Underwear

Underwear

Still

13

Cellophane

Cellophane

Still

14

City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD)

City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD)

Still

15

Disposition

Disposiyon

t to y, omit letter i

16

Part

Parte

added letter e at the last word

17

Drive

Drive

Still

18

Visit

Bisitahon

V to B and add suffix -hon

19

Response

Nagresponde/Miresponde

s to d and add affix Nag- and Mi-

20

Report

Report

Still

21

High

High

Still

22

Upper

Upper

Still

           

Table 4 shows that of the 22 English loanwords, the following reveal linguistic acculturation of orthographic nativization like residente, Kolor, Pamilya, Trak, Motoresta, Disposisyon, Parte, Bisitahon and Nagresponde/Miresponde. On the other hand 13 words are used exactly the same words in English and shows no Cebuano-Visayan equivalent translation.

 

Conclusion:

 

            A loanword is a result of cultural contact between two speech communities. It can affect in both directions within the two languages with direct contact.

 

            For instance, the Cebuano-Visayan language which is spoken in the central portions of the Philippines: on the islands of Cebu and Bohol, on the eastern half of Negros, western half of Leyte, along the northern coasts of Mindanao, and on smaller islands in the vicinity of these areas and a large portion of the urban population of Zamboanga, Davao, and Cotabato. Cebuano-Visayan is also widely spoken throughout the lowland areas of the eastern Mindanao, where it is spreading at the expense of the native languages (most of which are closely related to Cebuano). Hence, the trade language in most places in Mindanao where Cebuano-speaking populations and populations speaking other languages are in contact (Wolff, 1972).

            Within the above-mentioned area of Cebuano-Visayan speakers, undeniably, English loanwords are present and are evident to the different medium of communication like social interactions and print media just like the local news articles as become the basis of this study.

            To conclude, it has been proven that English loanwords in Cebuano-Visayan are acculturated through orthographic nativization and even really the exact English terms which is believed with no precise and direct translation in Cebuano-Visayan form.

 

Recommendations:

 

In view of the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are offered:

 

1. To institute creative-learning activities that covers the usage of English loanwords to Cebuano-Visayan language with regards to the different social interactions of the students.

2. To discover the different facets of the Language history of the Philippines and its contribution to the present used language.

3. To conduct the same study but on the different genres of literary textualities especially the social media.

4. There is a need for more parallel comprehensive research about the English loanwords as part of Structural borrowings.

 

References

 

1.      Babayeng Hubo Gusto Magpaligis. 20, May 2017, Sunstar Super Balita Cagayan de Oro City.

2.      Bababeng Hubo, Nagbuy-od Sa Dalan. 20, May 2017, Birada Sentro Balita Northern Mindanao.

3.      Barcelona, Kriscenti. Hispanic Borrowed Words: An Acculturation Analysis. 2016. Lourdes College Cagayan de Oro City.

4.      How Does Acculturation Affect Learning and Meaning? 2015. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/social-studies-help/76860how-does-acculturation-affect-learning-and-meaning/

5.      Hockett, Charles. D. The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. 1960 Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0960-88

6.      Matras, Yaron. Grammatical Borrowing in Cross-linguistic Perspective. 2000. Berlin Mouton de Gruyter

7.      Morelos, Allan. T. Special issue: Cebuano language, literature and talk pp. 324-336, 1998.  Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. https://www.jstor.org/stable/29792425?seq=1

8.      Sławomir W. & Przemysław Ż. Evolution: Why Hockett’s Design Features are a Non-Starter. 2014. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5178/9fa58ff1827129ea27b1859f089857422c10.pdf