We are inviting submission for April issue, 2024 (Vol. 5, No. 1). For more details, visit the section "Call for Paper" on our official website.

Caste, Gender, and Performance in Sharankumar Limbale’s Akkarmashi: A Butlerian Reading


Caste, Gender, and Performance in Sharankumar Limbale’s Akkarmashi: A Butlerian Reading



Research Scholar

School of English and Foreign Languages

The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University)

Gandhigram, Dindigul

Tamil Nadu, India


Dr. S. Balasundari

Associate Professor

School of English and Foreign Languages

The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University)

Gandhigram, Dindigul

Tamil Nadu, India



This article examines the complex intersections of caste, gender, and performance in Sharankumar Limbale’s autobiographical novel, Akkarmashi, through a Butlerian lens. Drawing on the theoretical framework of Judith Butler’s performativity theory, the article argues that Akkarmashi subverts dominant norms of caste and gender through its portrayal of the protagonist’s performance of various social roles. The article analyzes how Limbale’s text destabilizes the traditional dichotomy of the public and private spheres, challenging the normative ideas of femininity and masculinity within the caste system. Moreover, the article suggests that the performance of caste and gender in Akkarmashi is not merely an act of imitation but also a means of subversion and resistance. This article contributes to ongoing conversations about the intersections of caste, gender, and performance in South Asian literature and offers new insights into the ways in which literature can be used to expose and challenge oppressive social structures.


Keywords: Caste, Gender, Performance, Judith Butler, Dalit, Social Construction, Violence, Discrimination.




Akkarmashi is a Marathi language novel written by Sharankumar Limbale, originally published in 1978. It is considered a landmark in Dalit literature in India, as it is one of the first novels to be written by a Dalit author and to explore the experiences of Dalits in India. The word Akkarmashi  means ‘untouchable’ in Marathi, and the novel tells the story of a young boy who is born to an ‘untouchable’ mother and a upper caste father. The novel is autobiographical in nature, as it draws heavily on Limbale’s own.


Some of the major themes of the novel include caste discrimination, social inequality, poverty, and the struggle for identity and dignity. The novel provides a vivid and powerful portrayal of the harsh realities of life for Dalits in India, including their struggles to access education and gainful employment, as well as their experiences of social exclusion and discrimination. Through the character of the protagonist, Limbale also explores the themes of identity and belonging, as the young boy struggles to come to terms with his mixed-caste heritage and the way in which society views him.


Limbale’s most notable works include Akkarmashi, which is considered a milestone in Dalit literature and has been translated into several languages. It is a semi-autobiographical novel that depicts the life of a Dalit boy and his struggle for identity and self-acceptance. Limbale’s other notable works include Hindu (2010), The Dalit Brahmin and Other Stories (2018), Dalit Sahityache Saundaryshastra (1996) and Towards an Aesthetic of Dalit Literature (2004). Limbale’s literary contributions have been significant in shedding light on the issues of Dalit identity, social inequality, and injustice in India.


Sharankumar Limbale’s Akkarmashi (Outcaste) is a Marathi autobiographical novel that was published in 1978. The book explores the experiences of a boy who is born into the Mahar community, which is considered to be an untouchable caste in India’s caste system. The protagonist faces discrimination, marginalization, and social ostracism from birth because of his community’s social status.


The text is significant because it depicts the intersection of caste, poverty, and social ostracism. It portrays the lives of people from the lower caste communities who are forced to live in poverty and suffer from social exclusion. The novel exposes the ugly reality of the caste system and its impact on the lives of individuals. The themes explored in Akkarmashi  include the caste system, social inequality, poverty, discrimination, and oppression. The novel also explores the theme of identity, as the protagonist struggles to come to terms with his identity as an untouchable. Additionally, the book highlights the importance of education as a means of liberation and social mobility and, is a powerful critique of the caste system and its impact on individuals and society. It has become a significant work in Marathi literature and has been translated into several Indian languages and English.


The autobiographical novel Akkarmashi explores the intersection of caste, gender, and performance in the life of an outcaste. The story follows the protagonist’s struggle with identity and societal norms that dictate their place in society. Using a Butlerian lens, we can see how the performance of gender and caste is constructed and reinforced by society. Butler argues that gender is not something that is innate or natural but is rather a performance that is repeated and reinforced through cultural practices and norms. Similarly, caste is not something that is inherent but is rather a social construct that is perpetuated through cultural practices and beliefs.


Furthermore, Butler’s theory of performativity also highlights the possibility of subverting gender and caste norms through performance. In the novel, the protagonist’s struggles with their identity and their eventual rebellion against societal norms can be seen as a form of resistance against the oppressive system of caste and gender. By refusing to conform, the protagonist is challenging the very foundations of the system that seeks to control them.


Theoretical Framework


Judith Butler’s Theory of Gender Performativity


Judith Butler is a philosopher and feminist scholar who developed the theory of gender performativity in her book Gender Trouble published in 1990. The theory argues that gender is not a natural or inherent characteristic of an individual, but rather a social construct that is created and reinforced through repeated acts of performance.


Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity argues that gender is not a fixed or innate quality, but rather a performance that is constructed and reiterated through repeated acts and behaviors. In other words, we do not have a ‘true’ gender that exists independently of our actions, but rather our gender is something that we continually produce and maintain through our words, gestures, and interactions with others. As Butler puts it, “gender is not a noun, but a verb” (Gender Trouble 140).


Butler believes that gender is performed through a series of culturally and socially determined behaviors, gestures, and expressions that create the illusion of an essential and natural gender identity. These performances are learned and practiced throughout an individual’s life through socialization and are constantly reinforced by society’s expectations and norms. She writes, “gender is always already a contestation over cultural meanings and their inscription upon the body, and not a simple fact of bodily existence” (Undoing Gender 23).


According to Butler, these performances are not just individual acts, but rather collective practices that create and sustain social norms and expectations around gender. In other words, gender is not just a personal identity, but a cultural phenomenon that is constantly being created and reinforced through social interactions.


One of the key implications of Butler’s theory is that gender is not something that can be easily or permanently changed. While it is possible to disrupt or subvert gender norms through acts of resistance or subversion, these acts do not necessarily result in a permanent or stable transformation of gender identity. As Butler puts it, “gender identity might be reconceived as a possibility, as ‘open’ and ‘unfixed,’ but only through a sustained and critical inquiry into the ways in which regulatory practices constitute that identity as a credible ‘unity’“ (Undoing Gender 10).


Overall, Butler’s theory of gender performativity challenges us to rethink our assumptions about what gender is, how it operates, and what kinds of possibilities for change exist within it. As she argues, “if we view gender as performative, then it becomes clear that there is no pre-existing identity by which an act or attribute might be measured” (Gender Trouble 142). In other words, gender is not something that we have, but something that we do, and as such it is always subject to transformation and renegotiation.


Caste and Gender Performance in Dalit Literature


Butler’s theory of gender performativity can be applied to analyze caste and gender performance in Dalit literature by examining how social norms and expectations shape individuals’ performances of their gender and caste identities. According to Butler, gender is not an inherent biological trait but rather a social construct that is constantly produced and reproduced through repeated performances. Similarly, caste is also a social construct that is maintained through performances and rituals.


In Dalit literature, authors often challenge the traditional performances of caste and gender by exposing the ways in which these identities are constructed and maintained through oppressive social norms. Scholars use Butler’s theory to analyze the performances of gender and caste in the autobiographies of Dalit women. According to Butler’s theory of performativity, gender is not an innate quality, but a ‘stylized repetition of acts’ that produce the appearance of an essential gender identity. Dalit women’s autobiographies expose the ways in which gender and caste are performed and maintained through oppressive social norms and rituals.


Butler’s theory to examine how Dalit women’s performances of gender and caste are shaped by their experiences of violence and oppression and her theory of performativity helps us to see that the embodied performances of gender and caste are not simply individual choices, but are shaped by the social norms and expectations that dictate how individuals are allowed to perform their identities. For Dalit women, whose bodies have been marked by caste-based violence and discrimination, their performances of gender and caste are often shaped by the trauma and pain that they have experienced.


Butler’s theory of gender performativity provides a useful framework for analyzing the performances of caste and gender in Dalit literature. By examining how social norms and expectations shape individuals’ performances of their identities, we can better understand the ways in which caste and gender are constructed and maintained in oppressive ways, and how Dalit authors are challenging these norms through their writing.


Caste and Gender Performance in Akkarmashi


Caste Performance


The protagonist of the book is a young boy who is born to a lower-caste family in rural Maharashtra. Throughout the narrative, he struggles to come to terms with his caste identity and the discrimination he faces as a result. One of the key moments in the novel where the protagonist performs his caste identity is when he is denied entry into a temple because of his caste: “I asked my mother why I was not allowed to enter the temple. She said it was because we were Akkarmashi, outcastes. I did not understand what that meant. But I knew it was something bad, something that made people hate us.” (Limbale 15). It highlights how the protagonist’s caste identity is not something he chooses, but rather something that is imposed upon him by society. He is denied access to a religious space simply because of his caste, which reinforces the social hierarchy that exists in India.


Sharankumar’s identity is deeply intertwined with his caste, and he feels the need to constantly perform it in order to be accepted by society. He is constantly reminded of his status as an outcaste, and he struggles to find his place in the world. The use of the term ‘performance’ is also significant here. The speaker’s identity is not simply a given, but is produced and performed through repeated acts and behaviors that reinforce their position as an akkarmashi. This performance is shaped by the dominant norms and values of the society in which they live, and reinforces the power dynamics between different castes and classes. According to Butler, gender, race, and caste are not fixed categories but are performative, meaning that they are produced and reproduced through repeated acts.


Limblae’s identity is shaped by their mother’s caste and their father’s privileged class status. The speaker’s mother is an untouchable, a historically oppressed and marginalized caste in India, while the father is from a privileged class. This difference in caste and class is also reflected in their living conditions, with the mother living in a hut and the father in a mansion. The speaker identifies themselves as an ‘akkarmashi’ or ‘half-caste,’ which suggests that they are considered illegitimate because of their mixed caste and class heritage. This labeling of the speaker as illegitimate is an act of performativity that reinforces the dominant caste and class hierarchy in India.


“My history is my mother’s life, at the most my grandmother’s my ancestry does not go back any further. My mother is an untouchable while my father is I can’t from one of the privileged classes of India.  Mother lives in a hut, father lives in a mansion. Father is a landlord mother language. I am an akkarmashi (half-caste). I am condemned, branded illegitimate.” (Limbale ix)


 The above stanza reflects the intersection of caste, gender, and class identities, and demonstrates how these identities are produced and reproduced through performative acts. The speaker’s identification as an akkarmashi reflects the power dynamics between different castes and classes in India.


The narrator’s mother is a key character in this autobigraphical novel, and her own experiences of caste discrimination help to shape the protagonist’s understanding of his own identity. One of the ways in which she performs her caste identity is through her language. The words of mother show how language is a powerful marker of caste identity in India. The protagonist’s mother deliberately speaks in a way that marks her as an outcaste, even though she is capable of speaking in the language of the upper castes. It also highlights how caste discrimination is not just about physical markers, but also about linguistic and cultural practices. In short, the characters in Akkarmashi perform their caste identities in a variety of ways, including through language, occupation, and physical markers. These performances help to reinforce the social hierarchy that exists in India and highlight the pervasive nature of caste discrimination.


Limbale’s Akkarmashi is highlighting how the caste system’s privileges and social norms dictate who has power and control over others’ bodies and lives. By suggesting that their mother’s submission to their father’s appropriation is not a free choice but rather a consequence of her social position, the speaker is performing a critique of the caste system and the gender norms that it reinforces. The speaker is also challenging the idea of immortality and the ways in which it is tied to caste privilege, suggesting that it is not a universal or natural concept but rather a social construct that reflects and reinforces unequal power relations.


“I regard the immortality of my father and mother as a metaphor for rape. My father had privileges of birth latest privileges granted to him by the caste system. His relationship with my mother was respected by society whereas my mother is untouchable and poor. Had she been born into a high caste or were she rich, would she have submitted to his appropriation of her?” (Limbale ix )


Limbale is using the metaphor of immortality to question the social norms and power dynamics around gender and caste. The speaker suggests that the relationship between their father and mother was not one of mutual love and respect, but rather one in which the father had the privilege and power to appropriate the mother’s body. The speaker suggests that the social respect given to their father’s relationship with their mother is akin to society’s acceptance of rape. The book also brings up the caste system, highlighting how their mother’s caste and economic status put her at a disadvantage in the relationship. The speaker questions whether their mother would have submitted to their father’s appropriation of her if she had been born into a higher caste or had more economic power. (ix)


Akkarmashi records how Dalits feel like an outsider or an ‘alien’ in a particular locality due to their perceived untouchable status. The speaker questions the logic behind the idea of untouchability and caste-based discrimination, highlighting the arbitrary nature of such classifications. As Butler’s performativity theory suggests that identity is not fixed, but rather constructed through repeated acts or performances. In this sense, the speaker’s actions of maintaining personal hygiene and cleanliness could be seen as a performance that challenges the idea of untouchability based on caste.  Limbale questions the social norms and expectations surrounding caste performance, suggesting that cleanliness should be a universal standard rather than a privilege reserved for certain castes.


“I felt I was an alien in such localities. To me this way of life seemed hostile… I used clean clothes, bathed every day and washed myself clean with soap, and brushed my teeth with toothpaste. There was nothing unclean to me. Then in what sense was I untouchable? A high caste who is dirty was still considered touchable. This city was made of herds of castes. Even localities were identified by castes.” (Limbale 106-7)


This emphasizes that the ways in which caste performance is deeply embedded in the social and physical structure of the city, with different localities being identified by castes. This suggests that caste performance is not only an individual act but also a collective one, with social norms and expectations being reinforced through the physical and spatial organization of the city. And also illustrates the complex and arbitrary nature of caste performance, and how it is perpetuated through social norms and physical structures. The speaker’s questioning of these norms and their own performance of cleanliness challenges the boundaries and hierarchies that are imposed by caste.


The Role of Caste in Shaping the Characters’ Lives and Relationships


One of the main ways in which caste affects the characters in the novel is through social exclusion and discrimination. The protagonist, who is unnamed, is born into a family of manual scavengers, a group of people who are responsible for cleaning human waste. As a result of his caste, he is treated as an outcast and is not allowed to participate in many social activities. He is also subjected to physical and verbal abuse by members of higher castes.


Caste also affects the protagonist’s relationships. He is not allowed to marry outside of his caste, and his relationships with women from his own caste are complicated by societal expectations and gender roles. For example, he is expected to marry a woman from his own caste, but he falls in love with a woman from a higher caste. This creates tension and conflict between him and his family.


Moreover, caste affects the protagonist’s sense of self-worth and identity. He is made to feel inferior and less deserving of respect and dignity because of his caste. This leads him to feel ashamed of his background and to try to hide it from others. He struggles to reconcile his identity as a member of a lower caste with his desire to be accepted and respected by society. Caste affects the protagonist’s social standing, relationships, and sense of self-worth, and highlights the pervasive nature of caste-based discrimination and exclusion in Indian society.


 Gender Performance


Judith Butler’s concept of gender performativity argues that gender is not an inherent trait, but rather something that is socially constructed and performed. Gender performativity is the idea that individuals construct their gender identity through their actions and behaviors, which are influenced by societal norms and expectations.

In Dalit context, Butler’s concept of gender performativity can help us understand how gender norms and expectations are used to uphold the caste system and perpetuate oppression against Dalits. For example, traditional gender roles in Indian society often place men in positions of power and authority, while women are expected to be submissive and obedient. These gender roles are closely tied to caste-based hierarchies, with upper-caste men at the top of the social ladder, and lower-caste women at the bottom. Dalit literature often challenges these gender norms by portraying women as strong and independent, and by questioning the authority of men and the patriarchal structures that uphold the caste system. Through these portrayals, Dalit writers are performing a new kind of gender identity that challenges traditional gender roles and disrupts the hierarchical structures of caste and gender.


Limbale’s autobiographical book Akkarmashi depicts how gender roles are constructed and imposed upon individuals based on their biological sex. For instance, the protagonist, who is born male, is expected to conform to masculine norms and take up a traditionally male occupation. However, as a child, he is interested in activities that are considered feminine, such as cooking and taking care of his siblings. This highlights how gender roles are not inherent but are constructed through socialization and how individuals may resist these roles.


Limbale is afraid of their caste identity because they cannot claim their father's caste and religion, which suggests that their father may have been from a higher caste. The speaker feels conflicted because they have high-caste blood running in their body, which makes them feel as if they are not a true Mahar, the Dalit caste to which they belong.


“I was afraid of my caste because I could not claim my father’s caste and religion. In a sense I was not a Mahar, because high-caste blood ran in my body. Could I drain this blood out of my body? My own body nauseated me. The agony I lived through is my own as much as much as that of my village. The life of my village was mine. I was wounded by this landlord’s mansion” (Limbale 82 )


His struggle with their caste identity is intensified by the fact that their own body nauseates them. This suggests that the speaker is disgusted with their own identity and is struggling to reconcile their sense of self with the social norms and expectations that have been imposed upon them based on their caste and he suggests that their own personal struggle is representative of the struggles of their entire village, indicating that the issue of caste identity.


Limbale’s desire to ‘drain this blood out of their body’ is a powerful metaphor for the ways in which caste is embodied and internalized. The speaker feels as though their own body is a source of shame and disgust because of its impure lineage. This speaks to the idea that caste is not just a social construct, but a deeply embodied one that shapes the ways in which we experience ourselves and our own bodies.


The cultural significance of cows is in Hinduism, where they are seen as sacred and even regarded as a mother figure. The comparison between the treatment of a human mother's body and a cow's body highlights the unique position of cows in Hindu culture. The mention of the Mahar, who is responsible for disposing of the dead cow, is important in the context of Dalit literature as the Mahar community is considered to be at the bottom of the caste hierarchy in Hindu society. Judith Butler's theory of gender performance posits that gender is not something we inherently possess, but rather it is something that is performed through societal norms and expectations. Similarly, the treatment of cows in Hinduism can be seen as a form of performative culture, where the social practices and beliefs surrounding cows are performed by individuals in Hindu society. The fact that the Mahar community is responsible for disposing of dead cows highlights their position as a marginalized and oppressed community in Hindu society. Additionally, the weeping of the cow owner and the sad expression of the cow-pan can be seen as a gendered performance of grief and attachment, where the cow is personified and given the status of a mother figure. Overall, the stanza serves as a powerful commentary on the ways in which gender and caste intersect and impact the treatment of animals and marginalized communities in Hindu society.


“Hindus see the cow as their mother. A human mother is cremated but when a cow dies they need a Mahar to dispose it of. The owner weeps when her animals die. The cow-pan looks sad. The owner has to give a certain measure of grain to the Mahar who takes the dead animal away.” Limbale 14)


The book also explores how individuals who do not conform to gender norms face discrimination and violence. The protagonist’s sister is ostracized by the community for not conforming to feminine norms and choosing to wear masculine clothing. Gender performance in the work can be seen in the way the protagonist’s mother is treated. As a Dalit woman, she is subjected to social and economic marginalization, and her gender is used to further oppress her. Limbale writes, “My mother was a Dalit, and her womanhood was doubly oppressed. She had no right to express her desire, no right to express her anger” (Limbale 15). The protagonist’s mother’s gender is used to restrict her agency and autonomy, and her identity as a Dalit woman makes her doubly vulnerable to discrimination and violence. In brief, Limbale exposes the violence and injustice that is perpetuated through the rigid enforcement of gender norms. In short, serves as a powerful commentary on the ways in which gender and caste intersect and impact the treatment of animals and marginalized communities in Hindu society.


The Intersection of Gender and Caste in Akkarmashi


The autobiographical novel is a powerful critique of the caste system and patriarchy that oppress women from lower castes. Limbale uses his own experiences growing up in a Dalit community to portray the struggles of women from his community. The text also highlights the gender-based violence that Dalit women face. Limbale writes, “The Dalit woman’s body is a site of violence. She is beaten, raped, and humiliated with impunity. Her body is used to satisfy the sexual desires of men from the dominant castes” (Limbale 34).


Furthermore, Limbale critiques the role of religion in perpetuating the oppression of women from lower castes. He believed that Religion is a tool used by the upper castes to maintain their power over the lower castes. It teaches us to accept our lot in life and not question our oppressors. In Akkarmashi, Limbale calls for a revolution against the caste system and patriarchy.


 Intersectional Analysis of Performance in Akkarmashi


In Limbale’s Akkarmashi, an intersectional analysis can be seen to understand the ways in which caste, gender, and poverty intersect to shape the experiences of the protagonist. Firstly, the novel highlights the impact of caste on the life of the protagonist, who is born into a family of Dalit leather-workers. The protagonist’s experiences are shaped by the pervasive discrimination and violence faced by Dalits in India. He is denied access to education, employment opportunities, and basic human rights, solely because of his caste. Furthermore, the protagonist’s social status as a Dalit intersects with his gender, resulting in double discrimination. As a Dalit man, he faces the brunt of caste-based violence and discrimination, but as a man, he also benefits from patriarchal structures that privilege men over women.


Secondly, poverty is another factor that intersects with the protagonist’s caste and gender, creating further challenges. The protagonist’s family lives in extreme poverty, and his mother and sister are forced to engage in sex work to make ends meet. The intersection of caste, gender, and poverty creates a vicious cycle of marginalization and exclusion, making it nearly impossible for the protagonist to break out of his circumstances.


Further, the novel also sheds light on the role of religion in perpetuating caste-based discrimination. The protagonist’s family members are devout followers of Hinduism, which is used as a tool to justify their subjugation. The intersection of caste, religion, and gender creates a complex web of power dynamics that continue to shape the lives of millions of Dalits in India. Another example of the intersection of caste and gender can be seen in the protagonist’s own experiences of discrimination. Despite being half-Brahmin, he is still considered “impure” by Brahmins because of his Dalit mother. In one passage, he describes how his caste status affects his interactions with girls from higher castes: “I knew that no girl from a higher caste would ever look at me. They would see the impurity in my blood, the taint of my mother’s caste. Even if they did, their families would never allow them to marry me. I was an outcast, a pariah” (Limbale 47). This highlights the ways in which caste and gender intersect to limit opportunities for Dalit men as well. The protagonist’s caste status makes him ineligible for marriage with girls from higher castes, and his gender further compounds his marginalization.


Caste and Gender Performance Affect the Lives and Experiences


The novel portrays how the caste system is ingrained in society and affects the lives of individuals belonging to the lower castes. Limbale describes how his birth in a Dalit family determines his fate and how he is forced to lead a life of marginalization and exclusion. The author’s birth in a lower caste results in his exclusion from society, and he is not allowed to participate in many of the opportunities that are available to others.


Moreover, the novel also portrays the effects of gender performance on the lives of women. The author describes how women belonging to the lower castes are oppressed and exploited. Women are often forced to perform gender roles that are imposed upon them by society, which limits their opportunities for growth and development. Limbale writes, “I realized that I was a woman, and as a woman, I was nothing, a mere shadow of existence” (Limbale 36). The author portrays how women are reduced to mere objects and are not treated as individuals with their own identity and agency.


Additionally, the novel highlights the impact of caste and gender on the education system. The author describes how education is denied to those belonging to the lower castes, which further perpetuates their marginalization and exclusion from society. The author shows how the caste system perpetuates the marginalization of those belonging to lower castes, as they are denied opportunities for education and social mobility.




In conclusion, this article sheds light on the complex intersections of caste, gender, and performance in Indian society. Through a close examination of the protagonist’s struggles with gender identity and caste oppression, this article illustrates how social norms and structures shape individual experiences and performances. Additionally, by drawing upon Butlerian theory, the author highlights the performative nature of caste and gender, emphasizing how these categories are constructed and maintained through repeated acts of performance. Overall, this article offers valuable insights into the dynamics of caste and gender in India, and underscores the need for continued critical engagement with these issues. Using a Butlerian lens to analyze Akkarmashi can reveal a number of insights into the ways in which caste, gender, and performance intersect in Indian society. One key insight is that caste and gender are both performative categories that are constructed through social norms and practices. In other words, people are not inherently ‘male’ or ‘female’ or ‘untouchable,’ but rather these categories are constructed through the ways in which people behave and interact with one another.


Works Cited


Bama, and M. Vijayalakshmi. “Dalit Literature.” Indian Literature, vol. 43, no. 5 (193), 1999,

            pp. 97–98. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23342648. Accessed 29 Mar. 2022.


Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge, 1990.


Butler, Judith. Undoing Gender. Routledge, 2004.


G. P. D. “Dalit Literature.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 17, no. 3, 1982, pp. 61–62.

 JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4370571. Accessed 29 Mar. 2022.


Limbale, Sharankumar. Towards An Aesthetic of Dalit Literature. Translated by Alok Kumar, Raj. Dalit Literature and Criticism. Orient Longman, 2019. Mukherjee, Orient Longman, 2012.


Limbale, Sharankumar. Akkarmashi. Oxford University Press, 2006.


Limbale, Sharankumar. Akkarmashi. Translated by Santosh Bhoomkar, Oxford University

            Press, 2003.


Muthaiah, P. “Politics of Dalit Identity.” The Indian Journal of Political Science, vol. 65, no. 3,

2004, pp. 385–402. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41856064. Accessed 29 Mar. 2022.


Queen, Christopher. “Reading Dalit Autobiographies in English: A Top Ten List.” CASTE: A

Global Journal on Social Exclusion, vol. 2, no. 2, 2021, pp. 281–94. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/48645682. Accessed 20 Mar. 2022.