The Creative Section (Vol. 5, No. 1) is on its way and will be published by the end of May, 2024.

Recent Vistas of Modernization and Transmutation in Language Teaching

 


Recent Vistas of Modernization and Transmutation in Language Teaching

 

S. Nithya Devi

Assistant Professor

Department of English

Dr. N. G. P. Arts

and Science

College, Coimbatore

Tamil Nadu, India

 

 

Dr. R. Vithya Prabha

Professor and Head

Department of English

Dr. N. G. P. Arts

and Science

College, Coimbatore

Tamil Nadu, India

 

 

Dr. S. Sudha

Assistant Professor

Department of English,

Dr. N. G. P. Arts

and Science

College, Coimbatore

Tamil Nadu, India

 

    

Abstract:

Now and then a new technology, an old problem, and an immense idea turn into an innovation. A development is the general tendency towards change. Technology has interposed in every knowledge domain of Education. It has tremendously restructured learning and teaching ambience. Hence, English Language Teaching is not an exceptional. ELT has been transformed greatly because of entry of technology. A range of different methods, techniques and approaches were adopted through the years to meet up with the needs of the young learners. ELT initiated its journey with Classical Method and has get into the most impulsive period of its development where ICT is dominating in learning and teaching. An ample number of Educational choices are available for the present generation learners, the newer trends seem to have bloomed in the field of Education that have completely changed the facets of conventional system of education. The theories and methods are continually sprouting in the field of ELT. New approaches and methods in pedagogy also transformed the traditional face-to-face English learning and took it to an assorted level. In such a way, learning is moved to a multifarious dimension. This paper presents the innovative trends and its improvisations in the ELT that have been adopted practically in the latest times.

Keywords: Digital tools, E-Learning, Innovations, Methods, Pedagogy, Web 4.0

 

I. INTRODUCTION

English as a Universal language undergone several forms from early English derived from the Latin to the Modern English that was established once within the post Renaissance era. Every version of the language was easier than its previous one. The current English is that the simplest adaptation of an old language. Still it is hard to teach this language effectively particularly to those who learn English as a second language. In the last two decades many books have been published in English Language Teaching to get liberated from the control of traditional methods of teaching. The ELT has encountered tremendous changes over the years, especially in the last decade. The study of innovation in language teaching began to generate awareness only from the 1980s onwards.

II. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF ELT

 

The pre historic conditions of English language teaching were not as effective and dynamic as it has developed into the present day scenario because of the dawn of technology. At the time of 15th and 16th century the British Empire colonised many, there evolved the need to teach English to the higher authorities in order to converse with other governments, and colonies. Instructors were employed to teach English to those high officials in the same method as classical Latin and Greek were taught with the assistance of Classical Method. In this method, language was trained through grammatical rules, syntactic structure, and repetition and constant drilling of vocabulary and translation of literary texts.

III. EXISTING DEPLETED METHODOLOGIES

 

Late in 19th century, the Classical Method was started known as Grammar Translation Method. This method was given more importance to fretful writing exercises as compared to speaking and listening. Considerable importance was given only to reading and writing.

From the end of 19th century to the beginning of 20th century the Direct Method was presumed and enjoyed great reputation because the language was taught naturally and the medium of instruction is the target language itself.  This method endured in practice for many years due to its focal point on the functional use of English. But, still this method was impaired with certain setbacks. It leads to another Method that is called Audio-Lingual Method.

In 1950s Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) was introduced during the Second World War. The Americans felt the necessity of acquainting the languages of their enemies and allies. For this special language teaching centers were established and the personnel were taught other languages than English.  This period was marked by the emergence of Behaviourists in psychology and the development of science. Hence, all these factors paved the way for ALM.

In 1964, this method was rejected because of its drawback in the lack of communication. The other methods like Suggestopedia proposed by Bulgarian psychiatrist-educator, Georgi Lozanov existed for a shorter duration. In this Method relaxation is used as a tool to learn and recover knowledge. Vocabulary, and other literary texts are presented to the students and music is played in the background.

In 1970s there appeared a different method called as The Silent Way based on problem -solving approach. At this juncture, the students are given a task and teacher maintained distant and students co-operate with one another to solve the task.

The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) lays prominence on the communicative function of the language. It includes all aspects of language whichever related with theory or practice. Pragmatic and practical uses of language besides with communicative proficiency are some of the features of CLT.

III. NEW WAVE OF DIGITAL TECHNIQUES

In present day ELT has stepped into new stage of evolution where many inventions are emerged day after day. The application of digital technologies and the use of electronic gadgets like computers, tablets, laptops, and smart phones has become everyday substance. These digital devices influenced all streams of learning in general and specific in ELT. These devices hold a major position in ELT and proved as attractive and productive tools.

The conventional methods and approaches in ELT are linked and interlaced with technology. Accordingly, a new facet of ELT has drawn closer due to digital innovations. Innovation in language education includes new pedagogic approaches, such as Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT), transformation to teaching materials and technological developments, such as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), and alternative assessment methods, such as Portfolios. The CALL was in practice for nearly thirty years and now it is stepping towards as Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

Another striking development in ELT is from CALL to Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL). The availability of galore of applications, and devised programs on smart appliances are disporting a crucial role in ELT. The digital platforms have moulded English language teaching to such a degree that there is a great emergence and mass number of new tools, techniques and methods in practice.

The British Council recommends many fruitful applications to become skilled in English language. Some of them are Edmodo, Google Docs, digital video, online corpora, Online CPD (continuous professional development) and the global staffroom, Podcast and Padlet, Skype, Online authentic materials, the IWB (Interactive White Board), Dogme (or materials-light teaching),  Duolingo, Babbel, Drops, Memrise, FluentU, Beelinguapp, Class Dojo, Student-centered, and Teaching soft skills and critical thinking skills. These applications afford bunch of multifarious activities to learn English.

Similarly, the diversity of online contexts to assist language teaching and learning creates new opportunities for learners to look at concepts of genre, register, and culturally specific and appropriate communications. These include a variety of social media contexts, gaming platforms, collaborative- and telecollaborative-based projects, mashups, automation, Augmented and virtual reality, learning through TED Talks, Duolingo, and certain future trends like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data and Machine Learning (ML). The Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) tools enable the focus of the potential use of Web 4.0 in language learning and persist to offer capable instructional possibilities into the future.

IV. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". It is a practice of incorporating technology into education in a way that fosters a more diversified learning environment and gives students a chance to learn how to utilize it while also completing their regular assignments.

Traditional education was altered by the educational process aided by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). New types of learning, such as computer-based learning, online learning, web-based learning, e-learning, etc., have evolved as a result of the use of new teaching and learning techniques. Web-based education refers to the most extreme type of online learning, where there is no actual face-to-face interaction between the teacher and the student and when streaming videos and more sophisticated features of educational software are used. The main characteristics of web 4.0 are essential for e-learning in the similar ventures like development of intelligent agents, mobile technologies and cloud computing and services. The recent developments highlight on how 3D Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), Augmented Reality (AR), Learning Management System (LMS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) can contribute to learning English.

Like effective teachers, effective technology users employ a number of evidence-based techniques at once (such as adaptable content, regular testing, immediate feedback, etc.). While the teacher is working with other students, completing assessments, or doing other things, pupils can practise fundamental knowledge and skills using computers or other technology. Each student's education can be tailored using educational technology, allowing for better distinction and letting pupils advance towards mastery at their own speed.

V. CONCLUSION

English is the necessity for the endurance of professionals in this era of technology and information. The combination of technology and English introduced new prospects of learning and teaching. In the present, importance to the subject innovation has developed significantly. Globalization and ICT have fetched a number of innovations in ELT. The adoption of electronic devices has digitalized the language teaching. E-learning has imported e-evolution in ELT. Digital game-based education motivates the young learners to learn language creatively. These innovations in ELT induce a new portrait of the study where the use of e-learning, electronic devices, e-tools, e-books, video-conferencing and ICT may replace the classrooms with virtual learning. A novelistic combo of art and science, with a refashion of many tools helps the learners to excel in the field.

 

Web 4.0-based education places a greater emphasis on the student than traditional education does on the professor. A careful examination of the situation and informal conversations with "on-line teachers" reveal that Web-based education is quite far from achieving its primary goal of reaching a large distance audience in a cost-effective and educationally sound manner, and in particular accommodating the needs of students from underrepresented groups. This is true even though many research papers and media publications report significant success with Web-based education. With the help of new technical advancements for the use of intelligent agents, mobile technology, cloud computing, and services, education for the innovative institutions and professors is being developed and improved.

 

Works Cited

McKay S.L. Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford University Press, UK, 2002. Print

Nagaraj, Geetha. English Language Teaching Approaches, Methods, Techniques. II Edition. Orient Black Swan, Hyderabad, 1996. Print

Nicholas McGuinn, David Stevens, The Art of Teaching Secondary English: Innovative and Creative Approaches, Routledge, UK, 2004. Print

Richards, Jack C. & Rodgers T. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press, UK, 1992. Print

Thomas D. Lynch and Cynthia E. Lynch, Web-Based Education The Innovation Journal: The Public SectorInnovation Journal www.innovation.cc Vol. 8, No. 4

<https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/ten-innovations-have-changed-english-language-teaching//>